The Scalable Standardized Biofabrication of Tissue Spheroids from Different Cell Types Using Nonadhesive Technology
The Scalable Standardized Biofabrication
of Tissue Spheroids from Different Cell Types Using Nonadhesive Technology
Elizaveta V. Koudan,1 Janetta V. Korneva,2 Pavel A. Karalkin,1 Irina S. Gladkaya,1 Anna A. Gryadunova,1 Vladimir A. Mironov,1 Yusef D. Khesuani,1 and Elena A. Bulanova1
1Private Institution Laboratory for Biotechnological Research, 3D Bioprinting Solutions, Moscow, Russian Federation.
2Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS, Borok, Yaroslavl district, Russia.
We suggest a straightforward procedure for biofabrication and initial characterization of tissue spheroids with optimal controllable parameters prepared from four different cell types using nonadhesive technology. Applying different immortalized and primary cells, namely HEK293, primary human fibroblasts (HF), primary sheep chondrocytes, and primary sheep osteoblasts, we have demonstrated the reproducibility and scalability of spheroid generation, the strong dependency of ultimate spheroid diameter on initial cell seeding density, and cell type. In addition, the spheroid viability is governed by cell derivation. In this study, we suggest a decision procedure to apply for any cell type one starts to work with to prepare a new type of tissue spheroids with predictable controllable optimal features suitable for high-quality standards in biofabrication and drug discovery.